25 Useful Google Secrets, Tips And Facts That Most Of You Don’t Know

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25 Google Secrets, Tips And Facts That Most Of You Don’t Know

   1) Why Google Delivers More Targeted Results Than Other Search Engines


Like most of the major search engines, Google assembles the pages in its searc index by using special “searchbot” or crawler software to scour the Web. Found pages are automatically added to Google’s ever-expanding database; when you perform a search, you’re searching this database of Web pages, not the Web itself.

The results of your Google searches are ranked per Google’s trademarked PageRank technology. This technology measures how many other pages’ link to a particular page; the more links to a page, the higher that page ranks. In addition, PageRank assigns a higher weight to links that come from higher-ranked pages. So if a page is linked to from a number of high-ranked pages, that page will itself achieve a higher ranking.

The theory is that the more popular a page is, the higher that page’s ultimate value. While this sounds a little like a popularity contest (and it is), it’s surprising how often this approach delivers high-quality results.
The number of Web pages indexed by Google is among the largest of all search engines (Google and AllTheWeb are continually jockeying for “biggest” bragging rights), which means you stand a fairly good chance of actually finding what you were searching for. And the Google search engine is relatively smart;
it analyses the keywords in your query and recognizes the type of search result you’re looking for. (For example, if you enter a person’s name and city, it knows to search its phone book—not the general Web index

     2) Search for Names, Addresses, and Phone Numbers 


Search for Names, Addresses, and Phone Numbers Google includes its own White Pages directory of names, street addresses, and phone numbers. You can search this directory right from the Google home page. All you have to do is enter one of the following pieces of information into the search box and then click the

Google Search button:

 First name or initial, last name, and city (state is optional)
 First name or initial, last name, and area code
 First name or initial, last name, and zip code
 First name or initial, last name, and state
 Last name, city, and state
 Last name and zip code
 Phone number (including area code)

Google will then display a list of matching names. Each listing includes the person’s phone number and address; click the Yahoo! Maps or MapQuest link to view a map of that person’s location. You can display additional listings by clicking the More Phonebook Listings link.

Note :: Google can only display names that are publicly available. If a person’s phone number is unlisted, it won’t be displayed.

You can also use Google for reverse phone number lookups. (That is, you know the phone number but don’t know whose number it is.) To perform a reverse lookup, you use Google’s phonebook: operator. Just enter the operator followed by the phone number (include the area code, with no spaces or dashes), like this:
phonebook:123456789.
You can limit your search to residential phone numbers by using the optional rphonebook: operator, or to business phone numbers by using the optional bphonebook: operator.


     3) Bypass the Search Results and Go Directly to the First Page on the List

You have another option after you enter your search query, other than clicking the Google Search button. When you click the I’m Feeling Lucky button, Google shoots you directly to the Web page that ranked at the top of your search results, no extra clicking necessary. If you trust Google to always deliver the one best answer to your query, this is a fun option to try. For the rest of us, however, it’s still best to view the rest of the search results to see what other sites might match what we’re looking for.

    4) Don’t Bother with Capitalization

When you’re entering a Google query, don’t waste time pressing the Shift key on your computer keyboard. That’s because the Google search engine isn’t case sensitive. So it doesn’t matter how you capitalize the words in your query Red Dog and red dog will both return the same results.


     5) Narrow Your Search to a Specific Domain or Web Site


Maybe you want to search only those sites within a specific top-level Web domain, such as .com or .org or .edu—or, perhaps, within a specific country’s domain, such as .uk (United Kingdom) or .ca (Canada). Google lets you do this by using the site: operator. Just enter the operator followed by the domain name, like this: site:.domain.
For example, to search only those sites within the
·        .edu domain, you’d enter site:.edu.
·         Canadian sites, enter site:.ca.
Remember to put the “dot” before the domain.
The site: operator can also be used to restrict your search to a specific Web site.In this instance, you enter the entire top-level URL,
like this: site:www.website.domain.
For example, to search only within my Site Hacking Dream Web site (www.HackingDream.net), enter site:www.HackingDream.net
To search only within Microsoft’s Web site (www.microsoft.com), enter site:www.microsoft.com. Your results will include only pages listed within the specified Web site.

    6) Narrow Your Search to Words in the Page’s Title, URL, Body Text, or Link Text
Google offers two methods for restricting your search to the titles of Web pages, ignoring the pages’ body text. If your query contains a single word, use the intitle:operator. If your query contains multiple words, use the allintitle: operator.

We’ll look at some examples.
If you want to look for pages with the word “Hacking” in the title, use the intitle:operator and enter this query: intitle:Hacking. If you want to look for pages with both the words “Hacking” and “Dream” in the title, use the allintitle: operator and enter this query: allintitle: Hacking Dream. Notice that when you use the allintitle: operator, all the keywords after the operator are searched for; you separate the keywords with spaces.
Similar to the intitle: and allintitle: operators are the inurl: and allinurl: operators. These operators let you restrict your search to words that appear in Web page addresses, or URLs. You use these operators in the same fashion: inurl: to search for single words and allinurl: to search for multiple words.
It’s more likely that you’ll want to search the body text of Web pages. You can restrict your search to body text only (excluding the page title, URL, and link text), by using the intext: and allintext: operators. The syntax is the same as the previous operators; use intext: to search for single words and allintext: to search for multiple words.
There’s one more operator similar to the previous batch: inanchor: lets you restrict your search to words in the link, or anchor, text on a Web page. This is the text that accompanies a hypertext link—the underlined text on the page.
For example, to search for links that reference the word “dinosaur,” you’d enter inanchor:dinosaur.

     7) Conduct an Either/Or Search

When you enter multiple keywords in a search query, how does Google parse all those words?
It’s quite simple, really. By default, Google searches for Web pages that contain all the words you entered. That means that Google is inserting an invisible “and” between the words in your search query.

For example, if you enter red corvette as your query, Google reads this as red AND corvette, and searches for pages that contain both the words “red” and “corvette.” Results are likely to include pages dedicated to the Prince song, as well as to owners of crimson cruisers. But if a page is only about ‘Vettes and doesn’t specifically mention red ones it won’t be listed.

The bottom line? You don’t have to enter that AND between keywords; Google does it for you.
On the other hand (and here’s where the secret starts), if you want to search for pages that contain either one or another keyword (but not necessarily both), you have to give Google explicit instructions. You do this by using the special OR operator. So, to search for pages that include either of the words you enter, you insert this OR operator between the words in your query. (Surrounded by spaces, of course.)

Using the example from the previous secret, if you want to search for pages that contain either the word “red” or the word “corvette,” you enter the query red OR corvette. This will return all pages that include the word “red” as well as all pages that include the word “corvette,” no intersection necessary. So, you’ll get a lot of pages about red balloons and red robins, as well as general pages about Corvettes as well as those pages that include both words.

Here’s one of Google’s most powerful search tools, but also one that not enough users know about. When you want to search for a particular item that you describe in multiple words, enclose the entire phrase in quotation marks. This forces Google to search for the exact phrase, and thus returns more targeted results.
Example :: “HackingDream”

     8) Include Stop Words in Your Search


In an effort to produce more efficient searches, Google automatically disregards certain common words, called stop words that you might include in your search queries. Including a stop word in a search normally does nothing but slow the search down, which is why Google excises them.
Examples of the types of words that Google ignores are “where,” “how,” and “what,” as well as certain single letters (“a”) and digits.
 For example, if you enter the query how hacking works,
Google ignores the “how” and searches only for “Hacking” and “works.”
If you want to include specific stop words in your search, you have to instruct Google to do so. You do this by adding a plus sign (+) to your query, immediately followed (with no space) by the stop word you want to include. (Make sure you put a space before the plus sign but not afterwards!) Using our example, to include the stop word “how” in your search, you’d enter the following query:
Example :: +how hacking works.

    9)  Exclude Words from Your Results

Just as you can use the “plus” operator to specifically include words in your results, you can use the contrasting “minus” operator to exclude pages that include specific words. This is particularly useful if you’ve used a word in your query that has more than one meaning.
For example, if you search for cloud, you could get pages about those fluffy floating things, or about a blurring or obscuring (of vision, of minds, etc.). If you don’t want your results to include clouds of the meteorological variety, enter a query that looks like this: cloud –cumulus. If you want to search for bass—the singer, not the fish—you’d enter bass –fish. And so on.

 
    10) Narrow Your Search to Specific File Types

Google can search for information contained in all sorts of documents not just HTML Web pages. In particular, Google searches for the following file types and extensions in addition to normal Web pages:

 Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)
 Adobe PostScript (PS)
 Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1, WK2, WK3, WK4, WK5, WKI, WKS, WKU)
 Lotus WordPro (LWP)
 MacWrite (MW)
 Microsoft Excel (XLS)
 Microsoft PowerPoint (PPT)
 Microsoft Word (DOC)
 Microsoft Works (WDB, WKS, WPS)
 Microsoft Write (WRI)
 Rich Text Format (RTF)
 Text (ANS, TXT)
If you want to restrict your results to a specific file type, add the following
Phrase to your query: filetype:filetype. For example, if you want to search only for Microsoft Word documents, enter filetype:doc.
To eliminate a particular file type from your search results, add the following phrase to your query: -filetype:filetype.
For example, if you want to eliminate PDF files from your results, enter filetype:pdf.


    11)Resurrect Dead Pages

What do you do if you click to a Web page in the search results list, but that page no longer exists? (It happens; thousands of older Web pages go dead every day.) You may still be in luck, because Google saves a copy of each page that it indexes as it existed at the time it was indexed. So even if a page is dead and gone, you may still be able to view the cached (saved) version of that page on Google’s server.
To display a specific cached page, use the cache: operator, like this: cache:URL.
For example, to display the cached version of my Molehill Group home page,
enter cache:www.HackingDream.net

     12)List Pages That Link to a Specific Page

Want to know which other Web pages are linked to a specific page? Because Google works by tracking page links, this is easy to find out. All you have to do is use the link: operator, like this: link:URL. For example, to see the thousands of pages that link to Microsoft’s Web site, enter link:www.HackingDream.net.

     13) List Similar Pages

Have you ever found a Web page you really like, and then wondered if there were any more like it on the Web? Wonder no more; you can use Google’s related: operator to display pages that are in some way similar to the specified page. For example, if you really like the news stories on the CNN Web site (www.cnn.com), you can find similar pages by entering related:www.cnn.com

    14) Find Out More about a Specific Page

Google collects a variety of information about the Web pages it indexes.
In particular, Google can tell you which pages link to that page (see the link: operator, above), which pages are similar to that page (the related: operator), and which pages contain that page’s URL. To get links to all this information on a single page, use Google’s info: operator. For example, entering
info:www.HackingDream.net displays the information


       15)Get More from Your Search Results

For most searches, the list of sites on the search results page is all you need to find the information you’re looking for. However, Google provides a number of ways to return even more information based on your search criteria. These “secret results” often contain information you might not have found otherwise.

·        Display Related News Stories :: Google’s search results page sometimes includes more than just Web pages that match your results. Depending on your specific query, Google’s search results might include links to additional information—or to types of information specific to your request. The key is knowing what types of additional links Google might display, and how to use them.
·        Display Cached Pages :: As you learned earlier in this chapter, a cached page is that version of a Web page saved by Google when the page was last indexed. If a page changes frequently, the cached page might contain information no longer available on the current page. In the case of a page that no longer exists, accessing the Google cache might be the only way to still view the page. To view a cached version of a page listed on a Google search results page, click the Cached link at the bottom of the results listing. If that page still exists on Google’s server, it will now be displayed
·        Display Similar Pages :: Underneath each listing on the search results page is a Similar Pages link. When you click this link, Google will display a list of pages that are somehow similar to this particular page. Using Google’s Similar Pages feature is a good way to broaden your search without starting over from scratch.
·        Search within Your Search Results ::  If Google gives you too many results to deal with, you can winnow down the results by conducting a further search within the original search results. To narrow an existing search, all you need to do is add more words to the end of your original search query. Just move your cursor to the search box which contains the keywords of your current query and tack on more words to fine-tune your search. Click the Google Search button again and the next page of search results should be more targeted.

   16) Get Answers from an Expert


If you can’t find what you’re looking for on Google (and, despite Google’s advanced search technology, this sometimes happens), you have another course of action available to you. You can have an expert do the searching for you. Google Answers provides more than 500 paid researchers that will search the public Web and a variety of private databases for the information you request.
The Google Answers page (answers.google.com), shown in Figure 6-8, includes listings of previously answered questions, and also lets you enter new questions to be answered. The previously answered questions are organized by category; you can browse through the categories, or search for available answers using the Search Google Answers box.

To make a new request, enter your question into the Enter Your Question box, then click the Ask Question button. After you make your request, a Google researcher undertakes the search. When an answer is found, the researcher posts it to Google Answers, and notifies you via e-mail.
Using the Google Answers service comes at a price. You’ll pay from $2.50 and up for each question you ask, depending on its complexity. Note, however, that you’re only charged for the information that is actually found; if Google’s researchers draw a blank, you don’t have to pay.

    17)Put Google in Your Browser
You don’t have to go to the Google site to use Google search. Google enables you to install Google search functions in your Web browser, so you can use your browser to conduct a search, no entering of URLs necessary.
Google offers two methods of browser customization: Google Browser Buttons and the Google Toolbar. We’ll look at each.
Google Browser Buttons:
Google Browser Buttons are buttons that are added to your Web browser’s personal or links toolbar. These buttons can be added to either Netscape or
Internet Explorer browsers (versions 4.0 and later).
There are three Google Browser Buttons:
 Google Search :: initiates a Google search when you highlight any word on a Web page and then click this button
 GoogleScout :: finds Web pages that are similar to the currently displayed page
 Google.com :: takes you to the Google home page
To install Google Browser Buttons in your Web browser, go to
 www.google.com/options/buttons.html and click the Get Your Google Buttons Here link.


    18)Search Usenet Newsgroups

Not all the information on the Internet resides on the World Wide Web. Usenet is the largest and oldest existing online community in the world, predating the World Wide Web, but using the Internet’s basic infrastructure. Usenet is actually an assemblage of more than 30,000 online discussion groups, organized by topic. The messages exchanged in Usenet newsgroups often contain information relevant to the queries you might have.
The problem is that it’s difficult to perform a “live” search among the 30,000 or so current newsgroups. Not only is that a lot of groups to search through, you’re also faced with the problem of currentness. Because individual articles stay available in a newsgroup for only a limited period of time, articles “scroll off” particularly active newsgroups within a matter of days.
Fortunately for all of us, Google maintains a comprehensive archive of Usenet newsgroup messages, past and present. Google Groups is actually a continuation of the old DejaNews archive. You can use Google Groups to search the newsgroup archives or to browse the current messages in any Usenet newsgroup.

Searching the Newsgroups::
Searching the Google Groups archive is as simple as entering a query into the search box, and then clicking the Google Search button. You can also use the group: operator to narrow your search to specific newsgroups, or the author:operator to search for messages from a particular user.

When you click the Google Search button, Google searches its newsgroup archive for messages that contain the keywords in your query. The search results page lists messages (from a variety of newsgroups) that match your query, along with a list of the top newsgroups pertaining to your search. For each matching message, Google includes the message’s date and subject, which newsgroup the message appeared in, and the author of the message. Click the subject link to read the text of the message. From there you can view other messages in that particular thread or display other messages from that newsgroup.

Advanced Groups Search ::
Given the huge number of topic-specific newsgroups, you probably want to narrow down your search to specific groups otherwise you’ll be inundated with messages totally unrelated to the topic at hand. You can do this using the group: operator, as just discussed, or by accessing the Advanced Groups Search page

   19) Search University, Government, and Technology Sites

By default, Google searches the entire Web for the words in your search queries. You can, of course, use the site: operator to narrow your search to a specific site or domain. But Google has identified a number of sites that are frequently searched by users and has created a series of site-specific searches you can execute without the use of special operators.

Search University Sites::
There’s a lot of good information to be found on the Web sites of major colleges and universities. That’s why Google has made it easy to search specific university. Web sites using Google University Search. You can use Google University Search to search for course schedules, admissions information, and the like.
You access Google University Search at www.google.com/options/universities.html .
As of this writing, Google lists site-specific searches for more than 600 institutions worldwide, from Abilene Christian University to York University.

Search Government Sites ::
Google also makes it easy to search U.S. Government sites. When you access Google U.S. Government Search (www.google.com/unclesam/), Google directs your search to all the sites within the .gov domain—which include sites for all major U.S. government agencies, Congress, and the White House
Search Technology Sites ::
Google has created several common technology-related searches. You can use these technology and site-specific searches to find technical support, software for downloading, and other computer-related information and services. These searches include:
 Google Apple Macintosh Search (www.google.com/mac/)
 Google BSD Search (www.google.com/bsd/)
 Google Linux Search (www.google.com/linux/)
 Google Microsoft Search (www.google.com/microsoft.html)


    20) Let Google Complete the Phrase

Unlike most other search engines, Google does not support the use of wildcards to complete a keyword, nor does it use automatic stemming. Wildcards would let you search for all words that include the first part of a keyword; for example, a search for book* (with the * wildcard) would typically return results for “books,” “bookstore,” “bookkeeper,” and so on. Stemming is kind of like an automatic wildcard, where entering the keyword book would return all the aforementioned results (“books,” “bookstore,” etc.), no wildcard necessary.
Since Google doesn’t support wildcards or stemming, you have to enter all forms of any words you want to search for. Using the above example, you would have to enter the query book OR books OR bookstore OR bookkeeper to return all possible results. It’s a bit of a bother and a real weakness when you’re comparing Google to search engines with more powerful query features, such as AltaVista.
However, Google does let you use whole-word wildcards within a phrase search. That is, you can search for a complete phrase even if you’re not sure of all the words in the phrase. You let the * wildcard character stand in for those words you don’t know. Here’s an example. Let’s say you want to search for pages that discuss Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech, but you’re not sure whether he “has,” “had,” or “have” that dream. So you use the * wildcard to stand in for the word in question, and enter the following query: “i * a dream”.

You can use multiple wildcards within a single phrase, within reason. While “** a dream” might return acceptable results, “* * * dream” is a fairly uselessquery.


     21) Find the Latest News

Google has become one of the primary online resources for newshounds worldwide. Not that you have to search the Google index for old news stories (although you can, if you want to); no, Google does all the hard work for you with its Google News service.
View the Latest Headlines and Stories::

Google News is a news-gathering service that identifies, assembles, and displays the latest news headlines from thousands of different news organizations. As you can see in Figure 6-14, Google News organizes its stories by category and lists hundreds of related stories under each lead headline. Click the link to access the originating news source and read the story, or click the related link to view other sources’ take on the story. You can also click the category links (World, U.S., Business, Sci/Tech, Sports, Entertainment, and Health) to view more stories in that category.
You access Google News by clicking the News tab on the Google home page, or by going directly to news.google.com

I find Google News to be one of the best sources of news available online. By assembling stories from literally hundreds of different newspapers, magazines, and Web sites, it provides a depth of coverage that simply isn’t possible from single-source sites like CNN.com (discussed in Chapter 11). Granted, Google News focuses on the top stories only, but where else can you go to read coverage from the New York Times, the Melbourne Herald Sun, and the Arabic
News—all on the same page?
While reading Google News’ selected headlines is nice, if you’re searching for specific stories you need to use Google’s Advanced News Search. You access the Advanced News Search page from the Google News page. You can use the Advanced News Search to search by a variety of parameters

Here’s a bonus secret, based on Google’s Advanced News Search: Once you create a query for a specific topic, company, or newsmaker, you can bookmark the first search results page in your Web browser. Every time you access this bookmark, you’ll display an updated search results page containing the latest news stories on the specified topic. You can even put a shortcut to this bookmark on your desktop and double-click it when you want up-to-date news on the topic at hand.

    22) Have Google Deliver News Alerts to Your Inbox
Google also has the capability of notifying you via e-mail when news articles appear online that match the topics you specify. This way you can monitor breaking news stories, keep tabs on industries or competitors, or just stay up-to date on specific types of events.

You activate Google News Alerts by going directly to www.google.com/newsalerts/
Enter your keyword(s) in the News Search box, select how often you want to receive alerts, enter your e-mail address, then click the Create News Alert button. Google will now keep you informed of new news relating to the topic you specified.

     23) Ask Google the Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything

Google’s staff must have had some free time on their hands, because they hard-wired into their calculator the answers to some fairly complex and often fanciful calculations. My favourite is to ask the query the answer to life the universe and everything. Google’s answer, shown in Figure 6-19, should delight long-time fans of Douglas Adams’ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

     24) Put Google Search on Your Own Web Site

Google likes to get around. That’s why Google makes it easy to add Google search to your own personal Web pages, at no charge to you. All you must do is go to www.google.com/searchcode.html, copy the HTML code listed there, and paste that code into the code for your Web page. The result will be a Google search box and Google Search button that your visitors can use to search the Web from your site.
There are actually three different versions of Google search you can add to your Web page. Each comes with its own specific cut-and-paste HTML code:
 Google Free :: the same basic Google search available on the Google home page.
 Google Free Safe Search :: the same as Google Free, but with the
Safe Search content filter activated to filter out inappropriate results.
 Google Free Web search with site search ::  he basic Google Free search, but with additional capability for users to search your own Web site, as well. If you’re running a professional Web site, Google offers Custom Web Search for businesses and other large sites. See www.google.com/services/websearch.html  for more information about this paid service.

Small Tip :: Professional software developers can also add Google to their computer programs and Web sites via the Google Web Application Programming Interface (API). More information about the Google Web API is available at



    25) Uncover Even More Secrets in Google Labs

Believe it or not, Google has even more search projects in the works. The latest
cutting-edge research can be found at Google Labs (labs.google.com), which
is where Google’s search experts concoct all manner of search projects. Google
Labs is where the next Google features are often found.
As this book is being written, Google Labs has eight projects in the works.
These projects include:
 Google Compute: Uses your PC’s idle processing power for peer-topeer computing projects
 Google Deskbar: Lets you search Google from the Windows taskbar
 Google Glossary: Displays definitions for words you enter
 Google Keyboard Shortcuts: Lets you navigate your search results with your keyboard, no mouse necessary
 Google News Alerts: Sends e-mail alerts to your desktop when new stories appear online (see Secret #158 for more information)
 Google Search by Location: Lets you restrict your search to a specific geographic area
 Google Sets: Creates a set of related items based on a list of words you enter
 Google Viewer: Displays your search results as images in a kind of scrolling slide show
 Google Voice Search: Enables Google searching by Web phone
 Google Webquotes: Displays quotes about the pages in your search results


  
  1) Why Google Delivers More Targeted Results Than Other Search Engines


Like most of the major search engines, Google assembles the pages in its searc index by using special “searchbot” or crawler software to scour the Web. Found pages are automatically added to Google’s ever-expanding database; when you perform a search, you’re searching this database of Web pages, not the Web itself.


The results of your Google searches are ranked per Google’s trademarked PageRank technology. This technology measures how many other pages’ link to a particular page; the more links to a page, the higher that page ranks. In addition, PageRank assigns a higher weight to links that come from higher-ranked pages. So if a page is linked to from a number of high-ranked pages, that page will itself achieve a higher ranking.


The theory is that the more popular a page is, the higher that page’s ultimate value. While this sounds a little like a popularity contest (and it is), it’s surprising how often this approach delivers high-quality results.

The number of Web pages indexed by Google is among the largest of all search engines (Google and AllTheWeb are continually jockeying for “biggest” bragging rights), which means you stand a fairly good chance of actually finding what you were searching for. And the Google search engine is relatively smart;

it analyses the keywords in your query and recognizes the type of search result you’re looking for. (For example, if you enter a person’s name and city, it knows to search its phone book—not the general Web index


    2) Search for Names, Addresses, and Phone Numbers



Search for Names, Addresses, and Phone Numbers Google includes its own White Pages directory of names, street addresses, and phone numbers. You can search this directory right from the Google home page. All you have to do is enter one of the following pieces of information into the search box and then click the


Google Search button:


 First name or initial, last name, and city (state is optional)

 First name or initial, last name, and area code

 First name or initial, last name, and zip code

 First name or initial, last name, and state

 Last name, city, and state

 Last name and zip code

 Phone number (including area code)


Google will then display a list of matching names. Each listing includes the person’s phone number and address; click the Yahoo! Maps or MapQuest link to view a map of that person’s location. You can display additional listings by clicking the More Phonebook Listings link.


Note :: Google can only display names that are publicly available. If a person’s phone number is unlisted, it won’t be displayed.


You can also use Google for reverse phone number lookups. (That is, you know the phone number but don’t know whose number it is.) To perform a reverse lookup, you use Google’s phonebook: operator. Just enter the operator followed by the phone number (include the area code, with no spaces or dashes), like this:

phonebook:123456789.

You can limit your search to residential phone numbers by using the optional rphonebook: operator, or to business phone numbers by using the optional bphonebook: operator.



     3) Bypass the Search Results and Go Directly to the First Page on the List

You have another option after you enter your search query, other than clicking the Google Search button. When you click the I’m Feeling Lucky button, Google shoots you directly to the Web page that ranked at the top of your search results, no extra clicking necessary. If you trust Google to always deliver the one best answer to your query, this is a fun option to try. For the rest of us, however, it’s still best to view the rest of the search results to see what other sites might match what we’re looking for.


    4) Don’t Bother with Capitalization


When you’re entering a Google query, don’t waste time pressing the Shift key on your computer keyboard. That’s because the Google search engine isn’t case sensitive. So it doesn’t matter how you capitalize the words in your query Red Dog and red dog will both return the same results.




    5) Narrow Your Search to a Specific Domain or Web Site


Maybe you want to search only those sites within a specific top-level Web domain, such as .com or .org or .edu—or, perhaps, within a specific country’s domain, such as .uk (United Kingdom) or .ca (Canada). Google lets you do this by using the site: operator. Just enter the operator followed by the domain name, like this: site:.domain.

For example, to search only those sites within the

·        .edu domain, you’d enter site:.edu.

·         Canadian sites, enter site:.ca.

Remember to put the “dot” before the domain.

The site: operator can also be used to restrict your search to a specific Web site.In this instance, you enter the entire top-level URL,

like this: site:www.website.domain.

For example, to search only within my Site Hacking Dream Web site (www.HackingDream.net), enter site:www.HackingDream.net

To search only within Microsoft’s Web site (www.microsoft.com), enter site:www.microsoft.com. Your results will include only pages listed within the specified Web site.


    6) Narrow Your Search to Words in the Page’s Title, URL, Body Text, or Link Text

Google offers two methods for restricting your search to the titles of Web pages, ignoring the pages’ body text. If your query contains a single word, use the intitle:operator. If your query contains multiple words, use the allintitle: operator.


We’ll look at some examples.

If you want to look for pages with the word “Hacking” in the title, use the intitle:operator and enter this query: intitle:Hacking. If you want to look for pages with both the words “Hacking” and “Dream” in the title, use the allintitle: operator and enter this query: allintitle: Hacking Dream. Notice that when you use the allintitle: operator, all the keywords after the operator are searched for; you separate the keywords with spaces.

Similar to the intitle: and allintitle: operators are the inurl: and allinurl: operators. These operators let you restrict your search to words that appear in Web page addresses, or URLs. You use these operators in the same fashion: inurl: to search for single words and allinurl: to search for multiple words.

It’s more likely that you’ll want to search the body text of Web pages. You can restrict your search to body text only (excluding the page title, URL, and link text), by using the intext: and allintext: operators. The syntax is the same as the previous operators; use intext: to search for single words and allintext: to search for multiple words.

There’s one more operator similar to the previous batch: inanchor: lets you restrict your search to words in the link, or anchor, text on a Web page. This is the text that accompanies a hypertext link—the underlined text on the page.

For example, to search for links that reference the word “dinosaur,” you’d enter inanchor:dinosaur.


     7) Conduct an Either/Or Search


When you enter multiple keywords in a search query, how does Google parse all those words?

It’s quite simple, really. By default, Google searches for Web pages that contain all the words you entered. That means that Google is inserting an invisible “and” between the words in your search query.


For example, if you enter red corvette as your query, Google reads this as red AND corvette, and searches for pages that contain both the words “red” and “corvette.” Results are likely to include pages dedicated to the Prince song, as well as to owners of crimson cruisers. But if a page is only about ‘Vettes and doesn’t specifically mention red ones it won’t be listed.


The bottom line? You don’t have to enter that AND between keywords; Google does it for you.

On the other hand (and here’s where the secret starts), if you want to search for pages that contain either one or another keyword (but not necessarily both), you have to give Google explicit instructions. You do this by using the special OR operator. So, to search for pages that include either of the words you enter, you insert this OR operator between the words in your query. (Surrounded by spaces, of course.)


Using the example from the previous secret, if you want to search for pages that contain either the word “red” or the word “corvette,” you enter the query red OR corvette. This will return all pages that include the word “red” as well as all pages that include the word “corvette,” no intersection necessary. So, you’ll get a lot of pages about red balloons and red robins, as well as general pages about Corvettes as well as those pages that include both words.


Here’s one of Google’s most powerful search tools, but also one that not enough users know about. When you want to search for a particular item that you describe in multiple words, enclose the entire phrase in quotation marks. This forces Google to search for the exact phrase, and thus returns more targeted results.

Example :: “HackingDream”


    8) Include Stop Words in Your Search


In an effort to produce more efficient searches, Google automatically disregards certain common words, called stop words that you might include in your search queries. Including a stop word in a search normally does nothing but slow the search down, which is why Google excises them.

Examples of the types of words that Google ignores are “where,” “how,” and “what,” as well as certain single letters (“a”) and digits.

 For example, if you enter the query how hacking works,

Google ignores the “how” and searches only for “Hacking” and “works.”

If you want to include specific stop words in your search, you have to instruct Google to do so. You do this by adding a plus sign (+) to your query, immediately followed (with no space) by the stop word you want to include. (Make sure you put a space before the plus sign but not afterwards!) Using our example, to include the stop word “how” in your search, you’d enter the following query:

Example :: +how hacking works.


    9)  Exclude Words from Your Results


Just as you can use the “plus” operator to specifically include words in your results, you can use the contrasting “minus” operator to exclude pages that include specific words. This is particularly useful if you’ve used a word in your query that has more than one meaning.

For example, if you search for cloud, you could get pages about those fluffy floating things, or about a blurring or obscuring (of vision, of minds, etc.). If you don’t want your results to include clouds of the meteorological variety, enter a query that looks like this: cloud –cumulus. If you want to search for bass—the singer, not the fish—you’d enter bass –fish. And so on.


 
    10) Narrow Your Search to Specific File Types


Google can search for information contained in all sorts of documents not just HTML Web pages. In particular, Google searches for the following file types and extensions in addition to normal Web pages:


 Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)

 Adobe PostScript (PS)

 Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1, WK2, WK3, WK4, WK5, WKI, WKS, WKU)

 Lotus WordPro (LWP)

 MacWrite (MW)

 Microsoft Excel (XLS)

 Microsoft PowerPoint (PPT)

 Microsoft Word (DOC)

 Microsoft Works (WDB, WKS, WPS)

 Microsoft Write (WRI)

 Rich Text Format (RTF)

 Text (ANS, TXT)

If you want to restrict your results to a specific file type, add the following

Phrase to your query: filetype:filetype. For example, if you want to search only for Microsoft Word documents, enter filetype:doc.
To eliminate a particular file type from your search results, add the following phrase to your query: -filetype:filetype.

For example, if you want to eliminate PDF files from your results, enter filetype:pdf.


    11)Resurrect Dead Pages


What do you do if you click to a Web page in the search results list, but that page no longer exists? (It happens; thousands of older Web pages go dead every day.) You may still be in luck, because Google saves a copy of each page that it indexes as it existed at the time it was indexed. So even if a page is dead and gone, you may still be able to view the cached (saved) version of that page on Google’s server.

To display a specific cached page, use the cache: operator, like this: cache:URL.

For example, to display the cached version of my Molehill Group home page,

enter cache:www.HackingDream.net

     12)List Pages That Link to a Specific Page


Want to know which other Web pages are linked to a specific page? Because Google works by tracking page links, this is easy to find out. All you have to do is use the link: operator, like this: link:URL. For example, to see the thousands of pages that link to Microsoft’s Web site, enter link:www.HackingDream.net.

     13) List Similar Pages


Have you ever found a Web page you really like, and then wondered if there were any more like it on the Web? Wonder no more; you can use Google’s related: operator to display pages that are in some way similar to the specified page. For example, if you really like the news stories on the CNN Web site (www.cnn.com), you can find similar pages by entering related:www.cnn.com

    14) Find Out More about a Specific Page


Google collects a variety of information about the Web pages it indexes.

In particular, Google can tell you which pages link to that page (see the link: operator, above), which pages are similar to that page (the related: operator), and which pages contain that page’s URL. To get links to all this information on a single page, use Google’s info: operator. For example, entering

info:www.HackingDream.net displays the information



       15)Get More from Your Search Results


For most searches, the list of sites on the search results page is all you need to find the information you’re looking for. However, Google provides a number of ways to return even more information based on your search criteria. These “secret results” often contain information you might not have found otherwise.


·        Display Related News Stories :: Google’s search results page sometimes includes more than just Web pages that match your results. Depending on your specific query, Google’s search results might include links to additional information—or to types of information specific to your request. The key is knowing what types of additional links Google might display, and how to use them.

·        Display Cached Pages :: As you learned earlier in this chapter, a cached page is that version of a Web page saved by Google when the page was last indexed. If a page changes frequently, the cached page might contain information no longer available on the current page. In the case of a page that no longer exists, accessing the Google cache might be the only way to still view the page. To view a cached version of a page listed on a Google search results page, click the Cached link at the bottom of the results listing. If that page still exists on Google’s server, it will now be displayed

·        Display Similar Pages :: Underneath each listing on the search results page is a Similar Pages link. When you click this link, Google will display a list of pages that are somehow similar to this particular page. Using Google’s Similar Pages feature is a good way to broaden your search without starting over from scratch.

·        Search within Your Search Results ::  If Google gives you too many results to deal with, you can winnow down the results by conducting a further search within the original search results. To narrow an existing search, all you need to do is add more words to the end of your original search query. Just move your cursor to the search box which contains the keywords of your current query and tack on more words to fine-tune your search. Click the Google Search button again and the next page of search results should be more targeted.


   16) Get Answers from an Expert



If you can’t find what you’re looking for on Google (and, despite Google’s advanced search technology, this sometimes happens), you have another course of action available to you. You can have an expert do the searching for you. Google Answers provides more than 500 paid researchers that will search the public Web and a variety of private databases for the information you request.

The Google Answers page (answers.google.com), shown in Figure 6-8, includes listings of previously answered questions, and also lets you enter new questions to be answered. The previously answered questions are organized by category; you can browse through the categories, or search for available answers using the Search Google Answers box.


To make a new request, enter your question into the Enter Your Question box, then click the Ask Question button. After you make your request, a Google researcher undertakes the search. When an answer is found, the researcher posts it to Google Answers, and notifies you via e-mail.

Using the Google Answers service comes at a price. You’ll pay from $2.50 and up for each question you ask, depending on its complexity. Note, however, that you’re only charged for the information that is actually found; if Google’s researchers draw a blank, you don’t have to pay.


    17)Put Google in Your Browser

You don’t have to go to the Google site to use Google search. Google enables you to install Google search functions in your Web browser, so you can use your browser to conduct a search, no entering of URLs necessary.

Google offers two methods of browser customization: Google Browser Buttons and the Google Toolbar. We’ll look at each.

Google Browser Buttons:

Google Browser Buttons are buttons that are added to your Web browser’s personal or links toolbar. These buttons can be added to either Netscape or

Internet Explorer browsers (versions 4.0 and later).

There are three Google Browser Buttons:

 Google Search :: initiates a Google search when you highlight any word on a Web page and then click this button

 GoogleScout :: finds Web pages that are similar to the currently displayed page

 Google.com :: takes you to the Google home page

To install Google Browser Buttons in your Web browser, go to

 www.google.com/options/buttons.html and click the Get Your Google Buttons Here link.



    18)Search Usenet Newsgroups


Not all the information on the Internet resides on the World Wide Web. Usenet is the largest and oldest existing online community in the world, predating the World Wide Web, but using the Internet’s basic infrastructure. Usenet is actually an assemblage of more than 30,000 online discussion groups, organized by topic. The messages exchanged in Usenet newsgroups often contain information relevant to the queries you might have.

The problem is that it’s difficult to perform a “live” search among the 30,000 or so current newsgroups. Not only is that a lot of groups to search through, you’re also faced with the problem of currentness. Because individual articles stay available in a newsgroup for only a limited period of time, articles “scroll off” particularly active newsgroups within a matter of days.

Fortunately for all of us, Google maintains a comprehensive archive of Usenet newsgroup messages, past and present. Google Groups is actually a continuation of the old DejaNews archive. You can use Google Groups to search the newsgroup archives or to browse the current messages in any Usenet newsgroup.


Searching the Newsgroups::

Searching the Google Groups archive is as simple as entering a query into the search box, and then clicking the Google Search button. You can also use the group: operator to narrow your search to specific newsgroups, or the author:operator to search for messages from a particular user.


When you click the Google Search button, Google searches its newsgroup archive for messages that contain the keywords in your query. The search results page lists messages (from a variety of newsgroups) that match your query, along with a list of the top newsgroups pertaining to your search. For each matching message, Google includes the message’s date and subject, which newsgroup the message appeared in, and the author of the message. Click the subject link to read the text of the message. From there you can view other messages in that particular thread or display other messages from that newsgroup.


Advanced Groups Search ::

Given the huge number of topic-specific newsgroups, you probably want to narrow down your search to specific groups otherwise you’ll be inundated with messages totally unrelated to the topic at hand. You can do this using the group: operator, as just discussed, or by accessing the Advanced Groups Search page


   19) Search University, Government, and Technology Sites


By default, Google searches the entire Web for the words in your search queries. You can, of course, use the site: operator to narrow your search to a specific site or domain. But Google has identified a number of sites that are frequently searched by users and has created a series of site-specific searches you can execute without the use of special operators.


Search University Sites::

There’s a lot of good information to be found on the Web sites of major colleges and universities. That’s why Google has made it easy to search specific university. Web sites using Google University Search. You can use Google University Search to search for course schedules, admissions information, and the like.

You access Google University Search at www.google.com/options/universities.html .

As of this writing, Google lists site-specific searches for more than 600 institutions worldwide, from Abilene Christian University to York University.


Search Government Sites ::

Google also makes it easy to search U.S. Government sites. When you access Google U.S. Government Search (www.google.com/unclesam/), Google directs your search to all the sites within the .gov domain—which include sites for all major U.S. government agencies, Congress, and the White House

Search Technology Sites ::

Google has created several common technology-related searches. You can use these technology and site-specific searches to find technical support, software for downloading, and other computer-related information and services. These searches include:

 Google Apple Macintosh Search (www.google.com/mac/)

 Google BSD Search (www.google.com/bsd/)

 Google Linux Search (www.google.com/linux/)

 Google Microsoft Search (www.google.com/microsoft.html)



    20) Let Google Complete the Phrase


Unlike most other search engines, Google does not support the use of wildcards to complete a keyword, nor does it use automatic stemming. Wildcards would let you search for all words that include the first part of a keyword; for example, a search for book* (with the * wildcard) would typically return results for “books,” “bookstore,” “bookkeeper,” and so on. Stemming is kind of like an automatic wildcard, where entering the keyword book would return all the aforementioned results (“books,” “bookstore,” etc.), no wildcard necessary.

Since Google doesn’t support wildcards or stemming, you have to enter all forms of any words you want to search for. Using the above example, you would have to enter the query book OR books OR bookstore OR bookkeeper to return all possible results. It’s a bit of a bother and a real weakness when you’re comparing Google to search engines with more powerful query features, such as AltaVista.

However, Google does let you use whole-word wildcards within a phrase search. That is, you can search for a complete phrase even if you’re not sure of all the words in the phrase. You let the * wildcard character stand in for those words you don’t know. Here’s an example. Let’s say you want to search for pages that discuss Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech, but you’re not sure whether he “has,” “had,” or “have” that dream. So you use the * wildcard to stand in for the word in question, and enter the following query: “i * a dream”.


You can use multiple wildcards within a single phrase, within reason. While “** a dream” might return acceptable results, “* * * dream” is a fairly uselessquery.



     21) Find the Latest News


Google has become one of the primary online resources for newshounds worldwide. Not that you have to search the Google index for old news stories (although you can, if you want to); no, Google does all the hard work for you with its Google News service.

View the Latest Headlines and Stories::


Google News is a news-gathering service that identifies, assembles, and displays the latest news headlines from thousands of different news organizations. As you can see in Figure 6-14, Google News organizes its stories by category and lists hundreds of related stories under each lead headline. Click the link to access the originating news source and read the story, or click the related link to view other sources’ take on the story. You can also click the category links (World, U.S., Business, Sci/Tech, Sports, Entertainment, and Health) to view more stories in that category.

You access Google News by clicking the News tab on the Google home page, or by going directly to news.google.com

I find Google News to be one of the best sources of news available online. By assembling stories from literally hundreds of different newspapers, magazines, and Web sites, it provides a depth of coverage that simply isn’t possible from single-source sites like CNN.com (discussed in Chapter 11). Granted, Google News focuses on the top stories only, but where else can you go to read coverage from the New York Times, the Melbourne Herald Sun, and the Arabic

News—all on the same page?

While reading Google News’ selected headlines is nice, if you’re searching for specific stories you need to use Google’s Advanced News Search. You access the Advanced News Search page from the Google News page. You can use the Advanced News Search to search by a variety of parameters


Here’s a bonus secret, based on Google’s Advanced News Search: Once you create a query for a specific topic, company, or newsmaker, you can bookmark the first search results page in your Web browser. Every time you access this bookmark, you’ll display an updated search results page containing the latest news stories on the specified topic. You can even put a shortcut to this bookmark on your desktop and double-click it when you want up-to-date news on the topic at hand.


    22) Have Google Deliver News Alerts to Your Inbox

Google also has the capability of notifying you via e-mail when news articles appear online that match the topics you specify. This way you can monitor breaking news stories, keep tabs on industries or competitors, or just stay up-to date on specific types of events.


You activate Google News Alerts by going directly to www.google.com/newsalerts/

Enter your keyword(s) in the News Search box, select how often you want to receive alerts, enter your e-mail address, then click the Create News Alert button. Google will now keep you informed of new news relating to the topic you specified.


     23) Ask Google the Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything


Google’s staff must have had some free time on their hands, because they hard-wired into their calculator the answers to some fairly complex and often fanciful calculations. My favourite is to ask the query the answer to life the universe and everything. Google’s answer, shown in Figure 6-19, should delight long-time fans of Douglas Adams’ The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.


     24) Put Google Search on Your Own Web Site


Google likes to get around. That’s why Google makes it easy to add Google search to your own personal Web pages, at no charge to you. All you must do is go to www.google.com/searchcode.html, copy the HTML code listed there, and paste that code into the code for your Web page. The result will be a Google search box and Google Search button that your visitors can use to search the Web from your site.

There are actually three different versions of Google search you can add to your Web page. Each comes with its own specific cut-and-paste HTML code:

 Google Free :: the same basic Google search available on the Google home page.

 Google Free Safe Search :: the same as Google Free, but with the

Safe Search content filter activated to filter out inappropriate results.

 Google Free Web search with site search ::  he basic Google Free search, but with additional capability for users to search your own Web site, as well. If you’re running a professional Web site, Google offers Custom Web Search for businesses and other large sites. See www.google.com/services/websearch.html  for more information about this paid service.


Small Tip :: Professional software developers can also add Google to their computer programs and Web sites via the Google Web Application Programming Interface (API). More information about the Google Web API is available at





     25) Uncover Even More Secrets in Google Labs


Believe it or not, Google has even more search projects in the works. The latest

cutting-edge research can be found at Google Labs (labs.google.com), which

is where Google’s search experts concoct all manner of search projects. Google

Labs is where the next Google features are often found.

As this book is being written, Google Labs has eight projects in the works.

These projects include:

 Google Compute: Uses your PC’s idle processing power for peer-topeer computing projects

 Google Deskbar: Lets you search Google from the Windows taskbar

 Google Glossary: Displays definitions for words you enter

 Google Keyboard Shortcuts: Lets you navigate your search results with your keyboard, no mouse necessary

 Google News Alerts: Sends e-mail alerts to your desktop when new stories appear online (see Secret #158 for more information)

 Google Search by Location: Lets you restrict your search to a specific geographic area

 Google Sets: Creates a set of related items based on a list of words you enter

 Google Viewer: Displays your search results as images in a kind of scrolling slide show

 Google Voice Search: Enables Google searching by Web phone

 Google Webquotes: Displays quotes about the pages in your search results








 ==========     Hacking Don't Need Agreements     ==========

Just Remember One Thing You Don't Need To Seek Anyone's Permission To Hack Anything Or Anyone As Long As It Is Ethical, This Is The Main Principle Of Hacking Dream
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Bhanu Namikaze

Bhanu Namikaze is an Ethical Hacker, Web Developer, Student and Mechanical Engineer. He Enjoys writing articles, Blogging, Solving Errors and Social Networking. Feel Free to let me know any of your concerns about hacking or let me know if you need any more methods on hacking anything. Enjoy Learning

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